Reading List: Israeli/Palestinian Conflict 7-Theory, Methodology, Anthropology, and other History Approaches

Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference (Princeton Studies in Culture/Power/History) by Dipesh Chakrabarty

The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories (Princeton Studies in Culture/Power/History) by Partha Chatterjee

Intra-Jewish Conflict in Israel: White Jews, Black Jews (Routledge Studies in Middle Eastern Politics) by Sami Shalom Chetrit

Strangers in Their Homeland: A Critical Study of Israel’s Arab Citizens by Ra’anan Cohen

Globalization and Geopolitics in the Middle East: Old games, new rules (Durham Modern Middle East and Islamic World) by Anoushiravan Ehteshami

Contemporary Israel: Domestic Politics, Foreign Policy, and Security Challenges by Robert Freedman

Remembering and Imagining Palestine: Identity and Nationalism from the Crusades to the Present by Haim Gerber

Islamophobia: Making Muslims the Enemy by Peter Gottschalk

Crisis and Crossfire: The United States and the Middle East Since 1945 (Issues in the History of American Foreign Relations) by Peter L. Hahn

The Middle East in International Relations: Power, Politics and Ideology (The Contemporary Middle East) by Fred Halliday

The Resurgence of Anti-Semitism: Jews, Israel, and Liberal Opinion (Philosophy and the Global Context) by Bernard Harrison

The International Politics of the Middle East (Regional International Politics Series) by Raymond Hinnebusch

Islamophobia and the Politics of Empire by Deepa Kumar

The Changing Face of Anti-Semitism: From Ancient Times to the Present Day by Walter Laqueur

Exile and Return: Predicaments of Palestinians and Jews by Ann M. Lesch

American Orientalism: The United States and the Middle East since 1945 by Douglas Little

Politics and Government in Israel: The Maturation of a Modern State by Gregory S. Mahler

From Empathy to Denial: Arab Responses to the Holocaust (Columbia/Hurst) by Meir Litvak

Palestinian Collective Memory and National Identity by Meir Litvak

Epic Encounters: Culture, Media, and U.S. Interests in the Middle East since 1945 by Melani McAlister

Making Israel edited by Benny Morris

Power, Faith, and Fantasy: America in the Middle East: 1776 to the Present by Michael B. Oren

Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict since 1967 by William B. Quandt

Jews in Israel: Contemporary Social and Cultural Patterns (Tauber Institute Series for the Study of European Jewry) edited by Uzi Rebhun

Resurgent Antisemitism: Global Perspectives (Studies in Antisemitism) by Alvin H. Rosenfeld

The Israelis: Ordinary People in an Extraordinary Land by Donna Rosenthal

The Multicultural Challenge in Israel (Israel: Society, Culture, and History) by Avi Sagi

Orientalism by Edward Said

Being Israeli: The Dynamics of Multiple Citizenship (Cambridge Middle East Studies) by Gershon Shafir

Brother Against Brother: Violence and Extremism in Israeli Politics from Altalena to the Rabin Assassination by Ehud Sprinzak

The World Through Arab Eyes: Arab Public Opinion and the Reshaping of the Middle East by Shibley Telhami

Europe and the Islamic World: A History by John Tolan

Post-Zionism, Post-Holocaust: Three Essays on Denial, Forgetting, and the Delegitimation of Israel by Elhanan Yakira

Zakhor: Jewish History and Jewish Memory (The Samuel and Althea Stroum Lectures in Jewish Studies) by Yosef Hayim Yerushalmi

Recovered Roots: Collective Memory and the Making of Israeli National Tradition by Yael Zerubavel







Reading List: Israeli/Palestinian Conflict 6-Post-1948 History & Conflict Overviews


Side by Side: Parallel Histories of Israel-Palestine by Sami Adwan

The Israel-Palestine Conflict: Contested Histories by Neil Caplan

The Global Offensive: The United States, the Palestine Liberation Organization, and the Making of the Post-Cold War Order (Oxford Studies in International History) by Paul Thomas Chamberlin

The Limits of Détente: The United States, the Soviet Union, and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1969-1973 by Craig Daigle

Palestine 1948: War, Escape and the Emergence of the Palestinian Refugee Problem by Yoav Gelber

Co-memory and Melancholia: Israelis Memorialising the Palestininan Nakba by Ronit Lentin

Struggle and Survival in Palestine/Isræl by Mark LeVine

1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War by Benny Morris

1948 and After: Israel and the Palestinians (Clarendon Paperbacks) by Benny Morris

The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem, 1947-1949 (Cambridge Middle East Library) by Benny Morris

The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited (Cambridge Middle East Studies) by Benny Morris

Israel’s Border Wars, 1949-1956: Arab Infiltration, Israeli Retaliation, and the Countdown to the Suez War by Benny Morris

Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East by Michael B. Oren

The Soviet Government and the Jews 1948-1967: A Documented Study by Benjamin Pinkus

The Jewish Movement in the Soviet Union by Yaacov Ro’i

The Soviet Union and the June 1967 Six Day War (Cold War International History Project) by Yaacov Ro’i

The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948, 2nd Edition (Cambridge Middle East Studies 15) by Eugene L. Rogan

Nakba: Palestine, 1948, and the Claims of Memory (Cultures of History) by Ahmad H. Sa’di

Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949-1993 by Yezid Sayigh

Shared Histories: A Palestinian-Israeli Dialogue by Paul Scham

1967: Israel, the War, and the Year that Transformed the Middle East by Tom Segev

Conflict Overviews

The Israel-Palestine Conflict: One Hundred Years of War by James L. Gelvin

Israel / Palestine by Alan Dowty

The Palestine-Israel Conflict: A Basic Introduction, Third Edition by Gregory Harms

The Iron Cage: The Story of the Palestinian Struggle for Statehood by Rashid Khalidi

The Israel-Arab Reader: A Documentary History of the Middle East Conflict, 7th Edition by Walter Laqueur

The Arab-Israeli Conflict: A History by David W. Lesch

Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-2001 by Benny Morris

Israel: A History (The Schusterman Series in Israel Studies) by Anita Shapira

Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A History with Documents by Charles D. Smith


Reading List: Israeli/Palestinian Conflict 5-Jewish History & the Holocaust

Sephardic, Middle Eastern, and North African Jewish History

Jewish Emigration from the Yemen 1951-98: Carpet Without Magic (SOAS Centre for Near & Middle Eastern Studies) by Reuben Ahroni

New Babylonians: A History of Jews in Modern Iraq by Orit Bashkin

Becoming Ottomans: Sephardi Jews and Imperial Citizenship in the Modern Era by Julia Phillips Cohen

Sephardim: The Jews from Spain by Paloma Díaz-Mas

The Damascus Affair: ‘Ritual Murder’, Politics, and the Jews in 1840 by Jonathan Frankel

The Jewish Exodus from Iraq, 1948-1951 by Moshe Gat

The Jews of Spain: A History of the Sephardic Experience by Jane S. Gerber

In Ishmael’s House: A History of Jews in Muslim Lands by Martin Gilbert

The “Magic Carpet” Exodus of Yemenite Jewry: An Israeli Formative Myth by Esther Meir-Glitzenstein

Zionism in an Arab Country: Jews in Iraq in the 1940s by Esther Meir-Glitzenstein

Jewish Culture and Society in North Africa (Indiana Series in Sephardi and Mizrahi Studies) by Emily Benichou Gottreich

The Jews in Modern Egypt, 1914-1952 (Publications on the Near East) by Gudrun Kramer

The Jews of Egypt, 1920-1970: In the Midst of Zionism, Anti-Semitism, and the Middle East Conflict by Michael M. Laskier

North African Jewry in the Twentieth Century: The Jews of Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria by Michael M. Laskier

Comprehensive History of the Jews of Iran: The Outset of the Diaspora by Habib Lavi

The Road to Redemption: The Jews of the Yemen 1900-1950 (Brill’s Series in Jewish Studies) by Tudor Parfitt

History of a Tragedy: THE EXPULSION OF THE JEWS FROM SPAIN (Hispanisms) by Joseph Perez

After Expulsion: 1492 and the Making of Sephardic Jewry by Jonathan S. Ray

Sephardi Jewry: A History of the Judeo-Spanish Community, 14th-20th Centuries (Jewish Communities in the Modern World) by Esther Benbassa and Aron Rodrigue

Jews and Muslims: Images of Sephardi and Eastern Jewries in Modern Times by Aron Rodrigue

The Jews of the Middle East and North Africa in Modern Times by Reeva Spector Simon

Saharan Jews and the Fate of French Algeria by Sarah Abrevaya Stein

The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times by Norman A. Stillman

Operation Esther: Opening the Door for the Last Jews of Yemen by Hayim Tawil

Sephardic and Mizrahi Jewry: From the Golden Age of Spain to Modern Times by Zion Zohar

Early Modern European Jewish History, Modern European Jewish History, and the History of Zionism

The Jews of Eastern Europe, 1772-1881 (Jewish Culture and Contexts) by Israel Bartal

Nationalism, Zionism and Ethnic Mobilization of the Jews in 1900 and Beyond (Ijs Studies in Judaica, V. 2) by Michael Berkowitz

Zionism by David Engel

Haskalah and History: The Emergence of a Modern Jewish Historical Consciousness (Littman Library of Jewish Civilization) by Shmuel Feiner

The Jews of Poland Between Two World Wars (Tauber Institute for the Study of European Jewry Series) by Yisrael Gutman

Dreyfus: Politics, Emotion, and the Scandal of the Century by Ruth Harris

The Zionist Idea: A Historical Analysis and Reader by Arthur Hertzberg

From Dreyfus to Vichy: The Remaking of French Jewry 1906-1939 by Paula Hyman

Jewish Daily Life in Germany, 1618-1945 by Marion A. Kaplan

Exclusiveness and Tolerance: Studies in Jewish-Gentile Relations in Medieval and Modern Times (Scripta Judaica, 3) by Jacob Katz

From Prejudice to Destruction: Anti-Semitism, 1700-1933 by Jacob Katz

Out of the Ghetto: The Social Background of Jewish Emancipation, 1770-1870 (Modern Jewish History) by Jacob Katz

Toward Modernity: The European Jewish Model by Jacob Katz

A History of Zionism: From the French Revolution to the Establishment of the State of Israel by Walter Laqueur

The Arabs and Zionism before World War I by Neville Mandel

The Jews of East Central Europe between the World Wars (A Midland Book) by Ezra Mendelsohn

The Origins of the Modern Jew: Jewish Identity and European Culture in Germany, 1749-1824 by Michael A. Meyer

Beyond the Pale: The Jewish Encounter with Late Imperial Russia (Studies on the History of Society and Culture) by Benjamin Nathans

Zionism and Technocracy: The Engineering of Jewish Settlement in Palestine, 1870-1918 (The Modern Jewish Experience) by Derek J. Penslar

Becoming Hebrew: The Creation of a Jewish National Culture in Ottoman Palestine by Arieh Bruce Saposnik

Land and Power: The Zionist Resort to Force, 1881-1948 (Stanford Studies in Jewish History and C) by Anita Shapira

The Zionist Ideology (Tauber Institute Series for the Study of European Jewry) by Gideon Shimoni

The Transformation of German Jewry, 1780-1840 (Studies in Jewish History) by David Sorkin

Tsar Nicholas I and the Jews: The transformation of Jewish society in Russia, 1825-1855 by Michael Stanislawski

The Origins of Zionism by David Vital

Zionism: The Formative Years by David Vital

Holocaust History

None is Too Many: Canada and the Jews of Europe, 1933-1948 by Irving Abella

A History of the Holocaust (Single Title Social Studies) by Yehuda Bauer

FDR and the Jews by Richard Breitman

The War Against the Jews: 1933-1945 by Lucy S. Dawidowicz

Flight from the Reich: Refugee Jews, 1933-1946 by Robert Jan van Pelt and Debórah Dwork

The Politics of Rescue: The Roosevelt Administration and the Holocaust, 1938-1945 by Henry L. Feingold

Memory, History, and the Extermination of the Jews of Europe by Saul Friedlander

The Destruction of the European Jews, 3 Volume Set (Third Edition) by Raul Hilberg

Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany (Studies in Jewish History) by Marion Kaplan

Generation Exodus : The Fate of Young Jewish Refugees from Nazi Germany by Walter Laqueur

The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry 1933-1945 by Nora Levin

Escaping the Holocaust: Illegal Immigration to the Land of Israel, 1939-1944 (Studies in Jewish History (Oxford Hardcover)) by Dalia Ofer

The Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust 1941-1945 by David S. Wyman

Paper Walls: America and the Refugee Crisis 1938-1941 by David S. Wyman



Reading List: Israeli/Palestinian Conflict 4-Ottoman Empire, the Modern Middle East, Imperialism, and World War I

Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Brothers: Muslims, Christians, and Jews in Early Twentieth-Century Palestine by Michelle Campos

Osman’s Dream: The History of the Ottoman Empire by Caroline Finkel

A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire by M. Sükrü Hanioglu

The Arabs of the Ottoman Empire, 1516-1918: A Social and Cultural History by Bruce Masters

The Ottoman Empire, 1700-1922 (New Approaches to European History) by Donald Quataert

Frontiers of the State in the Late Ottoman Empire: Transjordan, 1850-1921 (Cambridge Middle East Studies) by Eugene L. Rogan

Palestine in Transformation, 1856-1882: Studies in Social, Economic and Political Development by Alexander Scholch

The Second Ottoman Empire: Political and Social Transformation in the Early Modern World (Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization) by Baki Tezcan

Arab Nationalism and the Modern Middle East

A History of the Modern Middle East by William Cleveland

Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century: From Triumph to Despair by Adeed Dawisha

From Ottomanism to Arabism: Essays on the Origins of Arab Nationalism by C. Ernest Dawn

The Modern Middle East: A History by James L. Gelvin

Rethinking Nationalism in the Arab Middle East edited by Israel Gershoni

A History of the Arab Peoples: With a New Afterword by Albert Hourani

Arabs and Young Turks: Ottomanism, Arabism, and Islamism in the Ottoman Empire, 1908-1918 by Hasan Kayali

Politics in Palestine: Arab Factionalism and Social Disintegration, 1939-1948 (SUNY Series in the Social and Economic History of the Middle East) by Issa Khalaf

The Origins of Arab Nationalism edited by Rashid Khalidi

Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness by Rashid Khalidi

The Palestinian People: A History by Baruch Kimmerling

A History of Palestine: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Founding of the State of Israel by Gudrun Kramer

Syria and the French Mandate: The Politics of Arab Nationalism, 1920-1945 (Princeton Studies on the Near East) by Philip Shukry Khoury

The Arabs and Zionism before World War I by Neville Mandel

The Origins of Palestinian Nationalism (Institute for Palestine Studies Series) by Muhammad Muslih

Arabism Islamism and the Palestine Question: A Political History by Basheer M. Nafi

State, Power and Politics in the Making of the Modern Middle East by Roger Owen

The Emergence of the Palestinian-Arab National Movement, 1918-1929 by Yehoshua Porath

The Palestinian Arab National Movement, 1929-1939: From Riots to Rebellion (Vol 2) by Yehoshua Porath

The Great Syrian Revolt and the Rise of Arab Nationalism (CMES Modern Middle East Series) by Michael Provence

Memories of Revolt: The 1936-1939 Rebellion and the Palestinian National Past by Ted Swedenburg

World War I, French Involvement, and the British Mandate in Palestine

A Line in the Sand: The Anglo-French Struggle for the Middle East, 1914-1948 by James Barr

The Last Crusade: The Palestine Campaign in the First World War by Anthony Bruce

Western Imperialism in the Middle East 1914-1958 by D. K. Fieldhouse

British Pan-Arab Policy, 1915-1922 by Isaiah Friedman

The Question of Palestine: British-Jewish-Arab Relations 1914-1918 by Isaiah Friedman

A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East by David Fromkin

Arab Christians in British Mandate Palestine: Communalism and Nationalism, 1917-1948 by Noah Haiduc-Dale

From Empire to Empire: Jerusalem Between Ottoman And British Rule (Space, Place and Society) by Abigail Jacobson

Syria and the French Mandate: The Politics of Arab Nationalism, 1920-1945 (Princeton Studies on the Near East) by Philip Shukry Khoury

The End of the Palestine mandate (Modern Middle East series) by William Roger Louis

Colonialism and Christianity in Mandate Palestine (Jamal and Rania Daniel Series in Contemporary History, Politics, Culture, and Religion of the Levant) by Laura Robson

The Balfour Declaration: The Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict by Jonathan Schneer

The Politics of Partition: King Abdullah, the Zionists, and Palestine 1921-1951 by Avi Shlaim

King Abdullah, Britain and the Making of Jordan (Cambridge Middle East Library) by Mary Christina Wilson

Hell in the Holy Land: World War 1 in the Middle East by David R. Woodward



Reading List: Israeli/Palestinian Conflict 3-Rise of Islam and Caliphate Rule through Medieval Europe

Rise of Islam and Caliphate Rule

The Byzantine-Islamic Transition in Palestine: An Archaeological Approach (Oxford Studies in Byzantium) by Gideon Avni

The Great Caliphs: The Golden Age of the ‘Abbasid Empire by Amira K. Bennison

The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800 (Themes in Islamic History) by Jonathan P. Berkey

The Rise of Islam (Greenwood Guides to Historic Events of the Medieval World) by Matthew Gordon

The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661-750 by G. R Hawting

The Early Abbasid Caliphate: A Political History by Hugh Kennedy

The Great Arab Conquests: How the Spread of Islam Changed the World We Live In by Hugh Kennedy

When Baghdad Ruled the Muslim World: The Rise and Fall of Islam’s Greatest Dynasty by Hugh Kennedy

Islam in the Middle Ages: The Origins and Shaping of Classical Islamic Civilization (Praeger Series on the Middle Ages) by Jacob Lassner

The Ottomans and the Mamluks: Imperial Diplomacy and Warfare in the Islamic World (Library of Ottoman Studies) by Cihan Yüksel Muslu

The History of Jerusalem: The Early Muslim Period (638-1099) by Joshua Prawer

Byzantine Empire and Medieval Europe

The Crusades: The Authoritative History of the War for the Holy Land by Thomas Asbridge

The Byzantine-Islamic Transition in Palestine: An Archaeological Approach (Oxford Studies in Byzantium) by Gideon Avni

The Crusader States by Malcolm Barber

The Byzantine Empire by Robert Browning

Reassessing Jewish Life in Medieval Europe by Robert Chazan

The Jews of Medieval Western Christendom, 1000-1500 (Cambridge Medieval Textbooks) by Robert Chazan

The Race for Paradise: An Islamic History of the Crusades by Paul M. Cobb

Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages by Mark R. Cohen

Exclusiveness and Tolerance: Studies in Jewish-Gentile Relations in Medieval and Modern Times (Scripta Judaica, 3) by Jacob Katz

The Crusades and the Christian World of the East: Rough Tolerance (The Middle Ages Series) by Christopher MacEvitt

The Concise History of the Crusades (Critical Issues in World and International History) by Thomas F. Madden

Religious Communities in Byzantine Palestina: The Relationship Between Judaism, Christianity and Islam AD 400-700 (Bar International Series) by Eliya Ribak

The Crusades: A History by Jonathan Riley-Smith

A Short History of the Byzantine Empire (I.B. Tauris Short Histories) by Dionysios Stathakopoulos

Alienated Minority: The Jews of Medieval Latin Europe by Kenneth Stow

God’s War: A New History of the Crusades by Christopher Tyerman

Reading List: Israeli/Palestinian Conflict 2-Ancient History

Ancient Period

Jews, Judaism, and the Classical World by Gedalyahu Alon

The First Jewish Revolt: Archaeology, History and Ideology by Andrea M. Berlin

The Jews in the Greek Age by Elias Bickerman

1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed (Turning Points in Ancient History) by Eric Cline

Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From? by William Dever

The End of the Bronze Age by Robert Drews

The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts by Neil Silberman and Israel Finkelstein

Rome and Jerusalem: The Clash of Ancient Civilizations by Martin Goodman

The Ruling Class of Judaea: The Origins of the Jewish Revolt against Rome, A.D. 66-70 by Martin Goodman

A History of Ancient Israel and Judah, Second Edition by J. Maxwell Miller and John Haralson Hayes

From the Rivers of Babylon to the Highlands of Judah: Collected Studies on the Restoration Period by Sara Japhet

Josephus: The Complete Works translated by William Whiston; by Flavius Josephus

Jewish Babylonia between Persia and Roman Palestine/em> by Richard Kalmin

Religious and Ethnic Communities in Later Roman Palestine (Studies and Texts in Jewish History and Culture, 5) by Hayim Lapin

Judah and the Judeans in the Persian Period by Oded Lipschits

A Brief History of Ancient Israel by Victor H. Matthews

Ancient Israel’s History and Historiography: The First Temple Period (Collected Essays) Volume 3 by Nadav Na’aman

Bar Kokhba War Reconsidered: New Perspectives on the Second Jewish Revolt Against Rome (Texts and Studies in Ancient Judaism, 100) by Peter Schafer

The History of the Jews in the Greco-Roman World: The Jews of Palestine from Alexander the Great to the Arab Conquest by Peter Schäfer

The Ancient Jews from Alexander to Muhammad (Key Themes in Ancient History) by Seth Schwartz

Palestine in Late Antiquity by Hagith Sivan

The Philistines and Aegean Migration at the End of the Late Bronze Age by Assaf Yasur-Landau

Diaspora Judaism in Turmoil, 116/117 CE: Ancient Sources and Modern Insights (Interdisciplinary Studies in Ancient Culture and Religion) by Miriam Pucci Ben Zeev


Reading List: Israeli/Palestinian Conflict 1-Methodological Note

I compiled this list because I am genuinely disturbed by all the bad history that goes around social media in regard to this conflict and I want to help interested parties to understand the thousands of years of history which led us to where we are today. That is my only interest in compiling this list. I do have my own personal views on the conflict, but I am a responsible enough historian and MLIS that I know how to separate those views from my presentation of the secondary literature. The only bias you are likely to find here is in my categorization, as it inevitably reflects my fields of study.

In compiling this list, my process and methodology were as follows: I first wrote down all the relevant works I could think of off the top of my head, all hailing from my fields of Biblical Studies and Modern Jewish History. I then reached out to my friends in Modern Middle Eastern History, Conflict Studies, Jewish History, etc for recommendations, lists, and insight; one of my friends, an ABD PhD candidate in Modern Middle Eastern History, was particularly helpful in helping me understand Israeli historiography, and pointing me towards the best works in the field of Arab Nationalism.

After taking their recommendations, I conducted a series of google searches using “‘relevant search term’” to ensure that I received results from only academic domains. From there, I read syllabi for university courses, and examined comprehensive exam reading lists. After that, I searched the catalog of the New York Public Library using any and all relevant search terms, and I also conducted targeted searches on Amazon. By the time I finished, I had a 50 pages filled with book titles.

My next step was to divide the list into categories, deleting irrelevant titles and repeats as I went along. After dividing the books into categories, I put each title through a rigorous fact checking process. I checked the publication material for each book to ensure that it was either a. published by an academic press with a built in peer review process, and/or b. written by an academic historian—either a faculty member, or someone with an MA or PhD in history. If I was still unsure after that step, I searched the title in the University of Maryland’s database system, and read the academic (meaning, peer reviewed) book reviews of the title. From there I either kept it on the list or removed it. As I approached the late-Ottoman period, I became extra-critical of relevant titles. At this point, I made sure to read book reviews from at least two academic journals in different fields/subfields to ensure not only the text’s legitimacy, but its ability to hold firm against the scrutiny of scholars in multiple fields. I tended to remove a work if the word “polemic” appeared in the reviews.

This said, many of the works on this list, particularly, but not exclusively, in the Post-1948, Arab Nationalism and the Modern Middle East, Conflict Overviews, and Historiography Narratives, Memory and Theory categories will be slanted, or biased. Considering the topic at hand, this reality is both inevitable and perhaps necessary. I do advise you, however, to read any books you select from these categories critically.

The vast majority of these books are academic histories (simply put, I don’t trust popular historians with this topic), so if you are not accustomed to that type of writing, be sure to read the Introduction of whichever books you select very carefully, and understand that you are reading to learn—not necessarily to enjoy.

In terms of my categorization…it is imperfect and becomes admittedly fuzzy once we get into the late Ottoman Period. I’m not even 100% comfortable with some of these categories, but if there is one thing I learned from Library Science, it is that categories are both terrible and inevitable in the organization of information.

I hope that from this bibliography you will gain an appreciation for the long and enormously complex history of this region of the world, and I hope you gain an appreciation for the vast arrays of experiences, ethnicities, and histories tied up in this tiny, contested piece of land. Hopefully this appreciation will lead to a broad, complete understanding of the issues at stake today, and will help you to inject accurate historical understandings into dialogue when you come across it.