Mila 18 and Molotov Cocktails and Zivia Lubetkin

That discussion of source analysis led to the second twitter thread of the day, this one about the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and memory.

It got me thinking about how the public remembers the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, if they remember it at all. That memory, that collective memory, is masculine. It’s young, strong men holed up in Mila 18. It’s a teenage boy throwing a Molotov cocktail out of a window of a deserted building. It’s a sobbing rabbi. It’s masculine action and tragedy.

There’s no place in this memory for Zivia Lubetkin. You probably don’t know her name, and that’s not your fault. The masculinization of the Holocaust narrative is no one person’s fault. But, allow me to remedy this situation.

Zivia Lubetkin was one of the founders and commanders of the Jewish Fighting Organization, the primary Jewish resistance organization inside and outside of the Warsaw Ghetto; Vladka was a member of this group. During the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Zivia was stationed in Mila 18, she commanded a group of fighters, and she was the one who led surviving fighters out of the ghetto, and through the sewers to the Aryan side of Warsaw.

That’s just a fraction, just a snippet of Zivia Lubetkin’s life and accomplishments. I could do an entire Fierce Historical Ladies post series on her, but I’m saving that material for…elsewhere.

If you want to know why you don’t know her name, why you don’t know more about women’s experiences in the Holocaust, and why you don’t know more about the imperative role of women in the Warsaw Jewish Resistance, these pieces of reading contain part of the story: Why Gender History is Important (Asshole)We Need to Talk About Anne Frank, and, of course, Vladka Meed: Female Courier to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.

A Meditation on Narrative and Sources

I originally thought this through in a twitter thread, adapted here in my preferred style with minor changes for grammar, spelling, and clarity. Asterisks denote discussions too big for this post, some of which can be found in my MA Thesis.

In grad school I did extensive research on the Shanghai Jewish refugee community, specifically, by way of reading memoirs. Now I’m doing extensive research on the Warsaw Ghetto, specifically the Jewish resistance in, once again by reading memoirs.

Memoirs are a deeply fallible source, further complicated by their status as published or unpublished, with oral histories requiring a different set of questions altogether. But the strength and joy of working with memoir as primary source for a small, specific, closed communities is that memoir/oral history/diary/ego-narrative can be a surprisingly telling source.

Yes there will be self-aggrandizement, flaws in human memory, repression, mis-ordered remembrance, flattering portrayals of those who do not deserve it, but as a group, as a body of literature, they can come together to tell on odd sort of truth. They can tell the patchwork story of a community, through vastly different points of view, each with their own, unique reason for existing.

Especially in regard to Holocaust narratives, you will see people writing, or speaking, about their experiences for a very specific set of reasons: they understood that they lived through something Big and wanted to record it; they needed to cope with their trauma; they want their children and grandchildren to know their story; the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, or the Shoah Foundation asked for and took their oral histories; they realized many years after the fact that their story needed to be told, etc.

Their motivation for telling/writing will shape, or inform, their narrative. A woman writing for her grandchildren may not write about the time she slept with a Japanese man in return for food money. A Polish man writing for History may not notice that his female comrades in the Jewish resistance had to slip off into the woods for an abortion.

Their motivations for writing, and, of course their gendered experiences and national socialization issues*, will inform the narrative the historian ends up seeing in front of them.

So even though these sources are deeply flawed, and shaped by so many factors and biases on the part of the writers, together they still tell a fairly cohesive story as long as you know how to analyze and interrogate them appropriately.

And, honestly, it’s such a thrill when the same figures and events pop in different narratives; when the same events occur through so many sets of eyes. There are couriers in Aryan Warsaw. The Nazis are liquidating the ghetto. Traumatized camp survivors are disembarking in Shanghai. American planes are bombing the part of Shanghai where the Jews had to live.

Through one point of view, one recollection, these are just stories. But through the eyes of many, they approach something a little bit closer to a cohesive narrative, to a form of truth, perhaps.

Reading List: Asian History, Australian History, Linguistic History, and Memoir

Asian History

India before Europe by Cynthia Talbot and Catherine B. Asher

Shanghai: China’s Gateway to Modernity by Marie-Claire Bergère

The Age of Confucian Rule: The Song Transformation of China (History of Imperial China) by Dieter Kuhn

Port of Last Resort: The Diaspora Communities of Shanghai by Marcia Ristaino

The United States and China: Into the Twenty-first Century by Michael Schaller

Australian History

Aboriginal Australians: A History Since 1788 by Richard Broome

Lives of the Papunya Tula Artists by Vivien Johnson

Once Upon a Time in Papunya by Vivien Johnson

Genocide and Settler Society: Frontier Violence and Stolen Indigenous Children in Australian History (Studies in War and Genocide) edited by A. Dirk Moses

Language History

Our Marvelous Native Tongue: The Life and Times of the English Language by Robert Claiborne

Our Magnificent Bastard Tongue: The Untold History of English by John McWhorter

Empires of the Word: A Language History of the World by Nicholas Ostler


The Alexiad (Penguin Classics) by Anna Comnena

How We Survived Communism & Even Laughed by Slevanka Drakulic

Defying Hitler: A Memoir by Sebastian Haffner

The Mitfords: Letters Between Six Sisters edited by Charlotte Mosley

The Complete Persepolis by Marjane Satrapi

Hatchepsut: The Female Pharaoh by Joyce A. Tyldesley

Reading List: Latin American History and Atlantic World History

Latin American History

Dignifying Argentina: Peronism, Citizenship, and Mass Consumption (Pitt Latin American Studies) by Eduardo Elena

Chicana Feminist Thought: The Basic Historical Writings edited by Alma M. Garcia

The New Cultural History of Peronism: Power and Identity in Mid-Twentieth-Century Argentina by Matthew B. Karush

To Be A Slave in Brazil: 1550-1888 by Katia M. deQueirós Mattoso

Death Is a Festival: Funeral Rites and Rebellion in Nineteenth-Century Brazil (Latin America in Translation) by João José Reis

The Women of Colonial Latin America (New Approaches to the Americas) by Susan Socolow

Malintzin’s Choices: An Indian Woman in the Conquest of Mexico (Dialogos) by Camilla Townsend

Atlantic World History

Women in African Colonial Histories edited by Nakanyike Musisi, Susan Geiger, and Jean Allman

Atlantic History: Concept and Contours by Bernard Bailyn

The Atlantic World: Europeans, Africans, Indians and Their Shared History, 1400-1900 by Thomas Benjamin

The Atlantic World: 1450-2000 (Blacks in the Diaspora) by Kevin D. Roberts and Toyin Falola

Atlantic History: A Critical Appraisal (Reinterpreting History) by Philip D. Morgan and Jack P. Greene

Slavery and African Ethnicities in the Americas: Restoring the Links by Gwendolyn Midlo Hall

Mosquito Empires: Ecology and War in the Greater Caribbean, 1620-1914 (New Approaches to the Americas) by J. R. McNeill

The Portuguese in West Africa, 1415-1670: A Documentary History edited by Malyn Newitt

Africa’s Discovery of Europe 1450-1850 by David Northrup

Death in the New World: Cross-Cultural Encounters, 1492-1800 (Early American Studies) by Erik R. Seaman

Recreating Africa: Culture, Kinship, and Religion in the African-Portuguese World, 1441-1770 by James H. Sweet

Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800 (Studies in Comparative World History) by John Kelly Thornton

Central Africans, Atlantic Creoles, and the Foundation of the Americas, 1585-1660 by John Kelly Thornton

Malintzin’s Choices: An Indian Woman in the Conquest of Mexico (Dialogos) by Camilla Townsend





Reading List: European History (Late Antiquity-Modern, incl. the World Wars & the Cold War)

The Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871 (Essential Histories) by Stephen Badsey

The First Total War: Napoleon’s Europe and the Birth of Warfare as We Know It by David A. Bell

Imperial Germany 1871-1918 by Volker Rolf Berghahn

Germany After the First World War by Richard Bessel

Life in the Third Reich edited by Richard Bessel

Nazism and War (Modern Library Chronicles) by Richard Bessel

History of Germany, 1780-1918: The Long Nineteenth Century (Blackwell Classic Histories of Europe) by David Blackbourn

Austria, Prussia and The Making of Germany: 1806-1871 (Seminar Studies) by John Breuilly

The Racial State: Germany 1933-1945 by Michael Burleigh and Wolfgang Wippermann

The Wars of German Unification 1864-1871 (Origins Of Modern Wars) by William Carr and Harry Hearder

Imperial Germany and the Great War, 1914-1918 (New Approaches to European History) by Roger Chickering

The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914 by Christopher Clark

The Battle of Königgrätz: Prussia’s Victory over Austria, 1866 by Gordon A. Craig

Germany 1866-1945 (Oxford History of Modern Europe) by Gordon A. Craig

The Revolutions in Europe, 1848-1849: From Reform to Reaction edited by RJW Evans and Hartmut Pogge von Strandmann

Aristocratic Women in Medieval France (The Middle Ages Series) edited by Theodore Evergates

Bismarck and the German Empire by Erich Eyck

Germany under the Old Regime 1600-1790 by John G. Gagliardo

On the Ruin of Britain (De Excidio Britanniae) (Dodo Press) by Gildas

German History in Modern Times: Four Lives of the Nation by William W. Hagen

Restoration, Revolution, Reaction: Economics and Politics in Germany, 1815-1871 by Theodore S. Hamerow

The Age of Revolution: 1789-1848 by Eric Hobsbawm

The Age of Capital: 1848-1875 by Eric Hobsbawm

The Age of Empire: 1875-1914 by Eric Hobsbawm

Theodosian Empresses: Women and Imperial Dominion in Late Antiquity (Transformation of the Classical Heritage) by Kenneth Holum

The Franco-Prussian War: The German Invasion of France 1870-1871 by Michael Howard

Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750 by Jonathan I. Israel

A Revolution of the Mind: Radical Enlightenment and the Intellectual Origins of Modern Democracy by Jonathan Israel

The Fall of France: The Nazi Invasion of 1940 (Making of the Modern World) by Julian Jackson

The Congress of Vienna and its Legacy: War and Great Power Diplomacy after Napoleon (International Library of Historical Studies) by Mark Jarrett

The 1848 Revolutions by Peter Jones

Hitler: Profiles in Power by Ian Kershaw

Hitler: 1889-1936 Hubris by Ian Kershaw

To Hell and Back: Europe 1914-1949 by Ian Kershaw

Facing Total War: German Society, 1914-1918 by Jurgen Kocka

The Weimar Republic by Eberhard Kolb

Napoleon and the Struggle for Germany: The Franco-Prussian War of 1813 (Cambridge Military Histories) (Volume 1) by Michael V. Leggiere

Napoleon and the Struggle for Germany: The Franco-Prussian War of 1813 (Cambridge Military Histories) (Volume 2) by Michael V. Leggiere

Dark Continent: Europe’s Twentieth Century by Mark Mazower

The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy by Hans Mommsen and Elborg Forster

Imperial Germany 1867-1918: Politics, Culture, and Society in an Authoritarian State (Hodder Arnold Publication) by Wolfgang J. Mommsen

The Crisis of German Ideology : Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich by George L. Mosse

Germany from Napoleon to Bismarck: 1800-1866 (Princeton Legacy Library) by Thomas Nipperdey

Women in the Holocaust by Dalia Ofer

The Enlightenment (New Approaches to European History) by Dorinda Outram

The World of the Troubadours: Medieval Occitan Society, c.1100-c.1300 by Linda M. Paterson

Franco and Hitler: Spain, Germany, and World War II by Stanley G. Payne

The Weimar Republic: The Crisis of Classical Modernity by Detlev J. K. Peukert

Inside Nazi Germany: Conformity, Opposition, and Racism in Everyday Life by Detlev J.K. Peukert

Between Sorrow and Strength: Women Refugees of the Nazi Period (Publications of the German Historical Institute) edited by Sibylle Quack

The Napoleonic Wars: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions) by Mike Rapport

1848: Year of Revolution by Mike Rapport

The Kaiser and his Court: Wilhelm II and the Government of Germany by John C. G. Rohl

The Transformation of European Politics 1763-1848 (Oxford History of Modern Europe) by Paul W. Schroeder

The Course of German Nationalism: From Frederick the Great to Bismarck 1763-1867 by Hagen Schulze

German History, 1770-1866 (Oxford History of Modern Europe) by James J. Sheehan

The Wars of German Unification (Modern Wars) by Dennis Showalter

Protestants, Catholics and Jews in Germany, 1800-1914 by Helmut Walser Smith

The Continuities of German History: Nation, Religion, and Race Across the Long Nineteenth Century by Helmut Walser Smith

Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin by Timothy Snyder

The European Revolutions, 1848 – 1851 (New Approaches to European History) by Jonathan Sperber

Rhineland Radicals: The Democratic Movement and the Revolution of 1848-1849 by Jonathan Sperber

The Struggle for Mastery in Europe: 1848-1918 (Oxford History of Modern Europe) by Alan J. P. Taylor

The Congress of Vienna: Power and Politics after Napoleon by Brian E. Vick

The Unfree French: Life Under the Occupation by Richard Vinen

The Austro-Prussian War: Austria’s War with Prussia and Italy in 1866 by Geoffrey Wawro

The Franco-Prussian War: The German Conquest of France in 1870-1871 by Geoffrey Wawro

The German Empire, 1871-1918 by Hans-Ulrich Wehler

Weimar Germany: Promise and Tragedy by Eric D. Weitz

The Inheritance of Rome: Illuminating the Dark Ages 400-1000 by Chris Wickham

Reading List: Art History

Art History

Papunya: A Place Made After the Story: the Beginnings of the Western Desert Painting Movement by Geoffrey Bardon

Papunya Tula: Art of the Western Desert by Geoffrey Bardon

Chasing Aphrodite: The Hunt for Looted Antiquities at the World’s Richest Museum by Ralph Frammolino and Jason Felch

The Aleppo Codex: A True Story of Obsession, Faith, and the Pursuit of an Ancient Bible by Matti Friedman

Lives of the Papunya Tula Artists by Vivien Johnson

Once Upon a Time in Papunya by Vivien Johnson

Papunya Painting by Vivien Johnson

The Amber Room: The Fate of the World’s Greatest Lost Treasure by Catherine Scott-Clark and Adrian Levy

The Art of Ancient Egypt: Revised Edition by Gay Robins

Australian Art (Oxford History of Art) by Andrew Sayers

The Art and Architecture of Ancient Egypt (The Yale University Press Pelican History of Art) by William Stevenson Smith


Reading List: Ancient History, Including Biblical Studies, and Mythology

Ancient Mesopotamia at the Dawn of Civilization: The Evolution of an Urban Landscape by Guillermo Algaze

The Punic Wars 264-146 BC (Essential Histories) by Nigel Bagnall

Helpmates, Harlots, and Heroes, Second Edition by Alice Ogden Bellis

Ancestor of the West : Writing, Reasoning, and Religion in Mesopotamia, Elam, and Greece by Francois Zabbal, Jean Pierre Vernant, Clarisse Herrenschmidt, Teresa Lavender, and Jean Bottero

A History of the Romans by Frank C. Bourne

Libraries in the Ancient World by Lionel Casson

Livy (Oxford Readings in Classical Studies) edited by Christina S. Kraus and Jane D. Chaplin

From Eden to Exile: Unraveling Mysteries of the Bible by Eric Cline

Roman Women (Cambridge Introduction to Roman Civilization) by Eve D’Ambra

Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh, and Others (Oxford World’s Classics) by Stephanie Dalley

Princess, Priestess, Poet: The Sumerian Temple Hymns of Enheduanna (Classics and the Ancient World)by Betty De Shong Meador

Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why (Plus) by Bart D. Ehrman

The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings by Bart D. Ehrman

Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium by Bart D. Ehrman

Between Rome and Carthage: Southern Italy during the Second Punic War by Michael P. Fronda

In the Wake of the Goddesses: Women, Culture and the Biblical Transformation of Pagan Myth by Tikva Frymer-Kensky

Livy: The Early History of Rome, Books I-V (Penguin Classics) (Bks. 1-5) translated by Aubrey De Selincourt, by Titus Livius

Livy: History of Rome, Vol. I, Books 1-2 (Loeb Classical Library: Latin Authors, Vol. 114) translated by B.O. Foster, by Titus Livius

History of Rome, II: Books 3-4 (Loeb Classical Library) translated by B.O. Foster, by Titus Livius

Princess, Priestess, Poet: The Sumerian Temple Hymns of Enheduanna (Classics and the Ancient World) by Betty De Shong Meador

A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000 – 323 BC [Blackwell History of the Ancient World Ser.] by Marc Van De Mieroop

The Roman Near East: 31 BC-AD 337 (Carl Newell Jackson Lectures) by Fergus Millar

Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves: Women in Classical Antiquity by Sarah Pomeroy

The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State (Cambridge World Archaeology) by Daniel T. Potts

Women in Ancient Egypt by Gay Robins

JPS Torah Commentary: Genesis by Nahum Sarna

Empress Zenobia: Palmyra’s Rebel Queen by Pat Southern

Palmyra and Its Empire: Zenobia’s Revolt against Rome by Richard Stoneman

Echoes of Eden: Genesis 2-3 and Symbolism of the Eden Garden in Biblical Hebrew Literature (Contributions to Biblical Exegesis & Theology) by Terje Stordalen

Dictionary of Ancient Deities by Patricia Turner and Charles Russell Coulter

Aurelian and the Third Century (Roman Imperial Biographies) by Alaric Watson

Inanna, Queen of Heaven and Earth: Her Stories and Hymns from Sumerby Diane Wolkstein and Samuel Noah Kramer

Reading List: American History

Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America by Ira Berlin

Slavery in New York by Leslie Harris and Ira Berlin

Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II by Douglas A. Blackmon

Captives and Cousins: Slavery, Kinship, and Community in the Southwest Borderlands by James F. Brooks

Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898 (The History of New York City) by Mike Wallace and Edwin G. Burrows

Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890-1940 by George Chauncey

The Other Women’s Movement: Workplace Justice and Social Rights in Modern America (Politics and Society in Twentieth-Century America) by Dorothy Sue Cobble

The Cherokee Nation in the Civil War by Clarissa W. Confer

Guarding the Golden Door: American Immigration Policy and Immigrants since 1882 by Roger Daniels

Coming to America: A History of Immigration and Ethnicity in American Life by Roger Daniels

Hungering for America: Italian, Irish, and Jewish Foodways in the Age of Migration by Hasia R. Diner

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God and Other Puritan Sermons (Dover Thrift Editions) by Jonathan Edwards

Ladies of Labor, Girls of Adventure by Nan Enstad

American Immigration: A Very Short Introduction by David A. Gerber

The Cherokee Nation and the Trail of Tears (Penguin Library of American Indian History) by Theda Perdue and Michael Green

The Federalist: with Letters of Brutus (Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought) edited by Terence Ball, written by James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton

The Colony of New Netherland: A Dutch Settlement in Seventeenth-Century America by Jaap Jacobs

Colonial New York: A History by Michael Kammen

The Battle for Welfare Rights: Politics and Poverty in Modern America (Politics and Culture in Modern America) Felicia Kornbluh

The Puritan Origins of American Patriotism by George McKenna

Black Indian Slave Narratives (Real Voices, Real History) (Real Voices, Real History Series) by Patrick Minges

American Slavery, American Freedom by Edmund S. Morgan

Women’s Education in the United States, 1780-1840 by Margaret A. Nash

African Cherokees in Indian Territory: From Chattel to Citizens (John Hope Franklin Series in African American History and Culture) by Celia E. Naylor

The Battle for Christmas by Stephen Nissenbaum

Liberty’s Daughters: The Revolutionary Experience of American Women, 1750-1800 by Mary Beth Norton

Storming Caesar’s Palace: How Black Mothers Fought Their Own War on Poverty by Annelise Orleck

Elias Cornelius Boudinot: A Life on the Cherokee Border (American Indian Lives) by James W. Parins

First Lady of Letters: Judith Sargent Murray and the Struggle for Female Independence (Early American Studies) Sheila L. Skemp

Judith Sargent Murray: A Brief Biography with Documents (Bedford Series in History & Culture) by Sheila L. Skemp

An American Betrayal: Cherokee Patriots and the Trail of Tears by Daniel Blake Smith

Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America by Christina Snyder

The Origins of American Slavery: Freedom and Bondage in the English Colonies (Critical Issue) by Betty Wood


Reading List: Historiography, Theory, Methodology, Construction, and Philosophy of History

Historiography, Theory, Methodology, Construction, and Philosophy of History

Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, Revised Edition by Benedict Anderson

The Practice of U.S. Women’s History: Narratives, Intersections, and Dialogues edited by Vicki L. Ruiz, S. Jay Kleinberg, and Eileen Boris

Who Owns History?: Rethinking the Past in a Changing World by Eric Foner

The Landscape of History: How Historians Map the Past by John Lewis Gaddis

Selected Subaltern Studies (Essays from the 5 Volumes and a Glossary) edited by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak and Ranajit Guha

On Collective Memory (Heritage of Sociology Series) by Maurice Halbwachs

Writing History in the Global Era by Lynn Hunt

Historiography in the Twentieth Century: From Scientific Objectivity to the Postmodern Challenge by George G. Iggers

Archives Power: Memory, Accountability, and Social Justice by Randall C. Jimerson

Archives: Principles and Practices by Laura Agnes Millar

Can the Subaltern Speak?: Reflections on the History of an Idea by Rosalind Morris

Gender and the Politics of History by Joan Scott

The Fantasy of Feminist History (Next Wave Provocations) by Joan Scott

Oral History and Public Memories (Critical Perspectives On The Past) edited by Paula Hamilton and Linda Shopes

Writing History: A Guide for Students by William Kelleher Storey

The Voice of the Past: Oral History (Opus Books) by Paul Thompson

The Pursuit of History (5th Edition) by John Tosh

Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History by Michel-Rolph Trouillot

A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Eighth Edition: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers (Chicago Guides to Writing, Editing, and Publishing) by Kate L. Turabian



Reading List: Israeli/Palestinian Conflict 7-Theory, Methodology, Anthropology, and other History Approaches

Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference (Princeton Studies in Culture/Power/History) by Dipesh Chakrabarty

The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories (Princeton Studies in Culture/Power/History) by Partha Chatterjee

Intra-Jewish Conflict in Israel: White Jews, Black Jews (Routledge Studies in Middle Eastern Politics) by Sami Shalom Chetrit

Strangers in Their Homeland: A Critical Study of Israel’s Arab Citizens by Ra’anan Cohen

Globalization and Geopolitics in the Middle East: Old games, new rules (Durham Modern Middle East and Islamic World) by Anoushiravan Ehteshami

Contemporary Israel: Domestic Politics, Foreign Policy, and Security Challenges by Robert Freedman

Remembering and Imagining Palestine: Identity and Nationalism from the Crusades to the Present by Haim Gerber

Islamophobia: Making Muslims the Enemy by Peter Gottschalk

Crisis and Crossfire: The United States and the Middle East Since 1945 (Issues in the History of American Foreign Relations) by Peter L. Hahn

The Middle East in International Relations: Power, Politics and Ideology (The Contemporary Middle East) by Fred Halliday

The Resurgence of Anti-Semitism: Jews, Israel, and Liberal Opinion (Philosophy and the Global Context) by Bernard Harrison

The International Politics of the Middle East (Regional International Politics Series) by Raymond Hinnebusch

Islamophobia and the Politics of Empire by Deepa Kumar

The Changing Face of Anti-Semitism: From Ancient Times to the Present Day by Walter Laqueur

Exile and Return: Predicaments of Palestinians and Jews by Ann M. Lesch

American Orientalism: The United States and the Middle East since 1945 by Douglas Little

Politics and Government in Israel: The Maturation of a Modern State by Gregory S. Mahler

From Empathy to Denial: Arab Responses to the Holocaust (Columbia/Hurst) by Meir Litvak

Palestinian Collective Memory and National Identity by Meir Litvak

Epic Encounters: Culture, Media, and U.S. Interests in the Middle East since 1945 by Melani McAlister

Making Israel edited by Benny Morris

Power, Faith, and Fantasy: America in the Middle East: 1776 to the Present by Michael B. Oren

Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict since 1967 by William B. Quandt

Jews in Israel: Contemporary Social and Cultural Patterns (Tauber Institute Series for the Study of European Jewry) edited by Uzi Rebhun

Resurgent Antisemitism: Global Perspectives (Studies in Antisemitism) by Alvin H. Rosenfeld

The Israelis: Ordinary People in an Extraordinary Land by Donna Rosenthal

The Multicultural Challenge in Israel (Israel: Society, Culture, and History) by Avi Sagi

Orientalism by Edward Said

Being Israeli: The Dynamics of Multiple Citizenship (Cambridge Middle East Studies) by Gershon Shafir

Brother Against Brother: Violence and Extremism in Israeli Politics from Altalena to the Rabin Assassination by Ehud Sprinzak

The World Through Arab Eyes: Arab Public Opinion and the Reshaping of the Middle East by Shibley Telhami

Europe and the Islamic World: A History by John Tolan

Post-Zionism, Post-Holocaust: Three Essays on Denial, Forgetting, and the Delegitimation of Israel by Elhanan Yakira

Zakhor: Jewish History and Jewish Memory (The Samuel and Althea Stroum Lectures in Jewish Studies) by Yosef Hayim Yerushalmi

Recovered Roots: Collective Memory and the Making of Israeli National Tradition by Yael Zerubavel